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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 8-K
CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15 (d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of Report: October 25, 2023
(Date of earliest event reported)
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New York 1-236013-0871985
(State of Incorporation)(Commission File Number)(IRS employer Identification No.)
One New Orchard Road
Armonk, New York
10504
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
914-499-1900
(Registrant’s telephone number)
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Capital stock, par value $.20 per shareIBMNew York Stock Exchange
NYSE Chicago
1.125% Notes due 2024IBM 24ANew York Stock Exchange
2.875% Notes due 2025IBM 25ANew York Stock Exchange
0.950% Notes due 2025IBM 25BNew York Stock Exchange
0.875% Notes due 2025IBM 25CNew York Stock Exchange
0.300% Notes due 2026IBM 26BNew York Stock Exchange
1.250% Notes due 2027IBM 27BNew York Stock Exchange
3.375% Notes due 2027IBM 27FNew York Stock Exchange
0.300% Notes due 2028IBM 28BNew York Stock Exchange
1.750% Notes due 2028IBM 28ANew York Stock Exchange
1.500% Notes due 2029IBM 29New York Stock Exchange
0.875% Notes due 2030IBM 30ANew York Stock Exchange
1.750% Notes due 2031IBM 31New York Stock Exchange
3.625% Notes due 2031IBM 31BNew York Stock Exchange
0.650% Notes due 2032IBM 32ANew York Stock Exchange
1.250% Notes due 2034IBM 34New York Stock Exchange
3.750% Notes due 2035IBM 35New York Stock Exchange
4.875% Notes due 2038IBM 38New York Stock Exchange
1.200% Notes due 2040IBM 40New York Stock Exchange
4.000% Notes due 2043IBM 43New York Stock Exchange
7.00% Debentures due 2025IBM 25New York Stock Exchange
6.22% Debentures due 2027IBM 27New York Stock Exchange
6.50% Debentures due 2028IBM 28New York Stock Exchange
5.875% Debentures due 2032IBM 32DNew York Stock Exchange
7.00% Debentures due 2045IBM 45New York Stock Exchange
7.125% Debentures due 2096IBM 96New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐



Item 2.02. Results of Operations and Financial Condition.
The registrant’s press release dated October 25, 2023, regarding its financial results for the period ended September 30, 2023, including consolidated financial statements for the period ended September 30, 2023, is Exhibit 99.1 of this Form 8-K.
In an effort to provide investors with additional information regarding the company’s results as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company has disclosed in the attached press release certain non-GAAP information which management believes provides useful information to investors. Reconciliations of these non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are included in the press release, which is Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 8-K. The rationale for management’s use of non-GAAP measures is included in Exhibit 99.2 to this Form 8-K.
The information in this Item 2.02, including the corresponding Exhibits 99.1 and 99.2, is being furnished with the Commission and shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Item 9.01. Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d)Exhibits
The following exhibits are being furnished as part of this report:

The following exhibit is being filed as part of this report:
Exhibit No.Description of Exhibit
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL Document)

IBM’s web site (www.ibm.com) contains a significant amount of information about IBM, including financial and other information for investors (www.ibm.com/investor/). IBM encourages investors to visit its various web sites from time to time, as information is updated and new information is posted.
2


SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, hereunto duly authorized.
Date: October 25, 2023
By:/s/ Nicolás A. Fehring
Nicolás A. Fehring
Vice President and Controller
3
Exhibit 99.1
IBM RELEASES THIRD-QUARTER RESULTS
Revenue growth led by Software and Consulting; Strong profit and cash generation
ARMONK, N.Y., October 25, 2023 . . . IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced third-quarter 2023 earnings results.
“Technology remains a critical source of competitive differentiation and progress for organizations around the world," said Arvind Krishna, IBM chairman and chief executive officer. "Clients are increasingly adopting our watsonx AI and data platform along with our hybrid cloud solutions to unlock productivity and operational efficiency. This is helping drive solid growth in our software and consulting businesses. As a result, we remain confident in our revenue and free cash flow growth expectations for the full year.”
Third-Quarter Highlights
Revenue
Revenue of $14.8 billion, up 4.6 percent, up 3.5 percent at constant currency
Software revenue up 8 percent, up 6 percent at constant currency
Consulting revenue up 6 percent, up 5 percent at constant currency
Infrastructure revenue down 2 percent, down 3 percent at constant currency

Profit Margin
Gross Profit Margin: GAAP: 54.4 percent, up 1.7 points; Operating (Non-GAAP): 55.5 percent, up 1.6 points
Pre-Tax Income Margin: GAAP: 12.7 percent, up 44.6 points; Operating (Non-GAAP): 15.6 percent, up 1.7 points

Cash Flow
Year to date net cash from operating activities of $9.5 billion, up $3.0 billion; free cash flow of $5.1 billion, up $1.0 billion

THIRD QUARTER 2023 INCOME STATEMENT SUMMARY
RevenueGross
Profit
Gross Profit MarginPre-tax
Income
Pre-tax
Income
Margin
Net
Income
Diluted
Earnings
Per Share
GAAP from Continuing Operations$14.8B$8.0B54.4%$1.9B12.7%$1.7B$1.86
Year/Year4.6%*8%1.7PtsNM**44.6Pts**NM**NM**
Operating
(Non-GAAP)
$8.2B55.5%$2.3B15.6%$2.0B$2.20
Year/Year8%1.6Pts17%1.7Pts23%22%
* 3.5% at constant currency
** GAAP YTY results include the impact of a one-time, non-cash pension settlement charge related to the transfer of a portion of the company's U.S. defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to third-party insurers in third quarter 2022.


“Our continued focus on the fundamentals of our business is driving solid revenue growth, profit margin expansion, and strong cash generation," said James Kavanaugh, IBM senior vice president and chief financial officer. "That cash generation has enabled us to increase our investment in R&D and acquisitions, strengthening our future AI and hybrid cloud capabilities, while supporting continued shareholder returns through our dividend.”




Segment Results for Third Quarter
Software — revenues of $6.3 billion, up 7.8 percent, up 6.3 percent at constant currency:
Hybrid Platform & Solutions up 8 percent, up 7 percent at constant currency:
Red Hat up 9 percent, up 8 percent at constant currency
Automation up 14 percent, up 13 percent at constant currency
Data & AI up 6 percent
Security down 2 percent, down 3 percent at constant currency
Transaction Processing up 7 percent, up 5 percent at constant currency

Consulting — revenues of $5.0 billion, up 5.6 percent, up 5.0 percent at constant currency:
Business Transformation up 6 percent, up 5 percent at constant currency
Technology Consulting up 2 percent, up 1 percent at constant currency
Application Operations up 7 percent

Infrastructure — revenues of $3.3 billion, down 2.4 percent, down 3.2 percent at constant currency:
Hybrid Infrastructure up 1 percent, flat at constant currency
IBM zSystems up 9 percent
Distributed Infrastructure down 4 percent, down 6 percent at constant currency
Infrastructure Support down 6 percent, down 7 percent at constant currency

Financing — revenues of $0.2 billion, up 6.9 percent, up 5.1 percent at constant currency

Cash Flow and Balance Sheet
In the third quarter, the company generated net cash from operating activities of $3.1 billion, up $1.2 billion year to year. Net cash from operating activities excluding IBM Financing receivables was $2.0 billion. IBM’s free cash flow was $1.7 billion, up $0.9 billion year to year. The company returned $1.5 billion to shareholders in dividends in the third quarter.
For the first nine months of the year, the company generated net cash from operating activities of $9.5 billion, up $3.0 billion year to year. Net cash from operating activities excluding IBM Financing receivables was $6.3 billion. IBM's free cash flow was $5.1 billion, up $1.0 billion year to year.
IBM ended the third quarter with $11.0 billion of cash and marketable securities, up $2.2 billion from year-end 2022. Debt, including IBM Financing debt of $9.9 billion, totaled $55.2 billion, up $4.3 billion since the end of 2022.


Full-Year 2023 Expectations
Revenue: The company continues to expect constant currency revenue growth of three percent to five percent. At current foreign exchange rates, currency is expected to be about a one-point headwind to revenue growth.
Free cash flow: The company continues to expect about $10.5 billion in free cash flow, up more than $1 billion year to year.


Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
Except for the historical information and discussions contained herein, statements contained in this release may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are based on the company’s current assumptions regarding future business and financial performance. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, including, but not limited to, the following: a downturn in economic environment and client spending



budgets; a failure of the company’s innovation initiatives; damage to the company’s reputation; risks from investing in growth opportunities; failure of the company’s intellectual property portfolio to prevent competitive offerings and the failure of the company to obtain necessary licenses; the company’s ability to successfully manage acquisitions, alliances and dispositions, including integration challenges, failure to achieve objectives, the assumption of liabilities and higher debt levels; fluctuations in financial results; impact of local legal, economic, political, health and other conditions; the company’s failure to meet growth and productivity objectives; ineffective internal controls; the company’s use of accounting estimates; impairment of the company’s goodwill or amortizable intangible assets; the company’s ability to attract and retain key employees and its reliance on critical skills; impacts of relationships with critical suppliers; product quality issues; impacts of business with government clients; reliance on third party distribution channels and ecosystems; cybersecurity and data privacy considerations; adverse effects related to climate change and environmental matters; tax matters; legal proceedings and investigatory risks; the company’s pension plans; currency fluctuations and customer financing risks; impact of changes in market liquidity conditions and customer credit risk on receivables; potential failure of the separation of Kyndryl Holdings, Inc. to qualify for tax-free treatment; risk factors related to IBM securities; and other risks, uncertainties and factors discussed in the company’s Form 10-Qs, Form 10-K and in the company’s other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission or in materials incorporated therein by reference. Any forward-looking statement in this release speaks only as of the date on which it is made. Except as required by law, the company assumes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements.

Presentation of Information in this Press Release
In an effort to provide investors with additional information regarding the company’s results as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company has also disclosed in this press release the following non-GAAP information, which management believes provides useful information to investors:

IBM results —
adjusting for currency (i.e., at constant currency);
presenting operating (non-GAAP) earnings per share amounts and related income statement items;
free cash flow;
net cash from operating activities excluding IBM Financing receivables.

The rationale for management’s use of these non-GAAP measures is included in Exhibit 99.2 in the Form 8-K that includes this press release and is being submitted today to the SEC.

Conference Call and Webcast
IBM’s regular quarterly earnings conference call is scheduled to begin at 5:00 p.m. ET, today. The Webcast may be accessed via a link at https://www.ibm.com/investor/events/earnings-3q23. Presentation charts will be available shortly before the Webcast.


Financial Results Below (certain amounts may not add due to use of rounded numbers; percentages presented are calculated from the underlying whole-dollar amounts).

Contact:
IBM
Sarah Meron, 347-891-1770
sarah.meron@ibm.com
Tim Davidson, 914-844-7847
tfdavids@us.ibm.com



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL RESULTS
(Unaudited; Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
20232022*20232022*
REVENUE BY SEGMENT
Software$6,265 $5,811 $18,794 $17,749 
Consulting4,963 4,700 14,938 14,337 
Infrastructure3,272 3,352 9,988 10,805 
Financing186 174 566 474 
Other67 70 192 475 
TOTAL REVENUE14,752 14,107 44,479 43,840 
GROSS PROFIT8,023 7,430 24,033 23,055 
GROSS PROFIT MARGIN    
Software79.5 %79.0 %79.4 %79.0 %
Consulting27.4 %26.0 %26.2 %24.8 %
Infrastructure53.5 %50.8 %53.8 %51.9 %
Financing49.7 %32.8 %47.5 %35.1 %
TOTAL GROSS PROFIT MARGIN54.4 %52.7 %54.0 %52.6 %
EXPENSE AND OTHER INCOME
S,G&A4,458 4,391 14,212 13,843 
R,D&E1,685 1,611 5,027 4,963 
Intellectual property and custom development income(190)(121)(618)(418)
Other (income) and expense(215)5,755 (721)5,921 
Interest expense412 295 1,202 903 
TOTAL EXPENSE AND OTHER INCOME6,150 11,931 19,102 25,212 
INCOME/(LOSS) FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS
BEFORE INCOME TAXES
1,873 (4,501)4,931 (2,156)
Pre-tax margin12.7 %(31.9)%11.1 %(4.9)%
Provision for/(Benefit from) income taxes159 (1,287)702 (1,070)
Effective tax rate8.5 %28.6 %14.2 %49.6 %
INCOME/(LOSS) FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS$1,714 $(3,214)$4,229 $(1,087)
DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
Income/(loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes(10)18 (15)16 
NET INCOME/(LOSS)$1,704 $(3,196)$4,214 $(1,071)
EARNINGS/(LOSS) PER SHARE OF COMMON STOCK    
Assuming Dilution    
Continuing Operations$1.86 $(3.55)$4.59 $(1.21)
Discontinued Operations$(0.01)$0.02 $(0.02)$0.02 
TOTAL $1.84 $(3.54)$4.58 $(1.19)
Basic    
Continuing Operations$1.88 $(3.55)$4.65 $(1.21)
Discontinued Operations$(0.01)$0.02 $(0.02)$0.02 
TOTAL $1.87 $(3.54)$4.63 $(1.19)
WEIGHTED-AVERAGE NUMBER OF COMMON SHARES OUTSTANDING (M’s)
Assuming Dilution923.7904.1920.3901.6
Basic912.8904.1910.1901.6
* Includes a one-time, non-cash, pre-tax pension settlement charge of $5.9 billion ($4.4 billion net of tax).




INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
(Unaudited)
(Dollars in Millions)At September 30,
2023
At December 31,
2022
ASSETS:
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$7,257 $7,886 
Restricted cash19 103 
Marketable securities3,721 852 
Notes and accounts receivable - trade, net5,330 6,541 
Short-term financing receivables, net5,625 7,790 
Other accounts receivable, net842 817 
Inventories1,399 1,552 
Deferred costs931 967 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets2,582 2,611 
Total Current Assets27,705 29,118 
Property, plant and equipment, net5,369 5,334 
Operating right-of-use assets, net3,112 2,878 
Long-term financing receivables, net4,789 5,806 
Prepaid pension assets8,901 8,236 
Deferred costs822 866 
Deferred taxes6,168 6,256 
Goodwill59,596 55,949 
Intangibles, net11,278 11,184 
Investments and sundry assets1,582 1,617 
Total Assets$129,321 $127,243 
LIABILITIES:
Current Liabilities:
Taxes$1,559 $2,196 
Short-term debt6,414 4,760 
Accounts payable3,342 4,051 
Deferred income11,917 12,032 
Operating lease liabilities807 874 
Other liabilities6,566 7,592 
Total Current Liabilities30,606 31,505 
Long-term debt48,828 46,189 
Retirement related obligations9,090 9,596 
Deferred income3,085 3,499 
Operating lease liabilities2,476 2,190 
Other liabilities12,081 12,243 
Total Liabilities106,165 105,222 
EQUITY:  
IBM Stockholders’ Equity:  
Common stock59,313 58,343 
Retained earnings149,506 149,825 
Treasury stock — at cost(169,640)(169,484)
Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)(16,098)(16,740)
Total IBM Stockholders’ Equity23,081 21,944 
Noncontrolling interests75 77 
Total Equity23,156 22,021 
Total Liabilities and Equity$129,321 $127,243 



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
Trailing Twelve Months Ended September 30,
(Dollars in Millions)2023202220232022*2023
Net Cash from Operations per GAAP$3,055 $1,901 $9,468 $6,470 $13,432 
Less: change in IBM Financing receivables1,092 704 3,119 1,071 1,331 
Capital Expenditures, net(282)(445)(1,226)(1,317)(1,769)
Free Cash Flow1,682 752 5,123 4,082 10,332 
Acquisitions(4,589)(62)(4,945)(1,020)(6,274)
Divestitures(10)(4)1,271 (3)
Dividends(1,515)(1,491)(4,522)(4,454)(6,016)
Non-Financing Debt(942)2,946 7,572 4,686 4,795 
Other (includes IBM Financing net receivables and debt)41 (198)(1,068)(2,395)(1,566)
Change in Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Short-term Marketable Securities$(5,333)$1,950 $2,156 $2,171 $1,268 
*Includes immaterial cash flows from discontinued operations.



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
CASH FLOW
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
(Dollars in Millions)2023202220232022*
Net Income/(Loss) from Operations$1,704 $(3,196)$4,214 $(1,071)
Pension Settlement Charge5,894 5,894 
Depreciation/Amortization of Intangibles1,093 1,163 3,243 3,665 
Stock-based Compensation286 251 843 739 
Working Capital / Other(1,119)(2,914)(1,952)(3,827)
IBM Financing A/R1,092 704 3,119 1,071 
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities$3,055 $1,901 $9,468 $6,470 
Capital Expenditures, net of payments & proceeds(282)(445)(1,226)(1,317)
Divestitures, net of cash transferred(10)(4)1,271 
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired(4,589)(62)(4,945)(1,020)
Marketable Securities / Other Investments, net2,927 (1,193)(3,732)(1,818)
Net Cash Provided by/(Used in) Investing Activities$(1,953)$(1,697)$(9,906)$(2,883)
Debt, net of payments & proceeds(1,550)2,138 4,619 2,572 
Dividends(1,515)(1,491)(4,522)(4,454)
Financing - Other(67)67 (252)(223)
Net Cash Provided by/(Used in) Financing Activities$(3,132)$714 $(154)$(2,106)
Effect of Exchange Rate changes on Cash(119)(197)(120)(463)
Net Change in Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash$(2,149)$721 $(713)$1,018 
*Includes immaterial cash flows from discontinued operations.



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
SEGMENT DATA
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023
 
(Dollars in Millions)SoftwareConsultingInfrastructureFinancing
Revenue$6,265 $4,963 $3,272 $186 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations*$1,486 $509 $387 $91 
Pre-tax Margin*23.7 %10.2 %11.8 %49.2 %
Change YTY Revenue7.8 %5.6 %(2.4)%6.9 %
Change YTY Revenue - Constant Currency6.3 %5.0 %(3.2)%5.1 %

Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
 
(Dollars in Millions) SoftwareConsultingInfrastructureFinancing
Revenue$5,811 $4,700 $3,352 $174 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations$1,306 $462 $280 $79 
Pre-tax Margin22.5 %9.8 %8.3 %45.4 %
*The third quarter 2023 pre-tax charge of approximately $0.03 billion for workforce rebalancing is not included in the measure of segment pre-tax income, consistent with the company's management system.




Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
 
(Dollars in Millions)SoftwareConsultingInfrastructureFinancing
Revenue$18,794 $14,938 $9,988 $566 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations*$4,154 $1,336 $1,236 $256 
Pre-tax Margin*22.1 %8.9 %12.4 %45.3 %
Change YTY Revenue5.9 %4.2 %(7.6)%19.5 %
Change YTY Revenue - Constant Currency6.5 %6.4 %(6.4)%20.3 %

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
(Dollars in Millions) SoftwareConsultingInfrastructureFinancing
Revenue$17,749 $14,337 $10,805 $474 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations$3,816 $1,154 $1,236 $265 
Pre-tax Margin21.5 %8.0 %11.4 %55.9 %
*The year-to-date 2023 pre-tax charge of approximately $0.41 billion for workforce rebalancing is not included in the measure of segment pre-tax income, consistent with the company's management system.



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
U.S. GAAP TO OPERATING (Non-GAAP) RESULTS RECONCILIATION
(Unaudited; Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023
Continuing Operations
GAAP
Acquisition-
Related
Adjustments (1)
Retirement-
Related
Adjustments (2)
Tax
Reform
Impacts
Kyndryl-
Related
Impacts (3)
 Operating
(Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit$8,023 $162 $— $— $— $8,185 
Gross Profit Margin54.4 %1.1 pts.pts.pts.pts.55.5 %
S,G&A$4,458 $(277)$— $— $— $4,181 
Other (Income) & Expense(215)— 12 — — (203)
Total Expense & Other (Income)6,150 (277)12 — — 5,885 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations1,873 438 (12)— — 2,299 
Pre-tax Income Margin from Continuing Operations12.7 %3.0 pts.(0.1)pts.— pts.— pts.15.6 %
Provision for/(Benefit from) Income Taxes (4)
$159 $99 $(14)$24 $— $268 
Effective Tax Rate8.5 %2.7 pts.(0.5)pts.1.0 pts.— pts.11.7 %
Income from Continuing Operations$1,714 $340 $$(24)$— $2,031 
Income Margin from Continuing Operations11.6 %2.3 pts.0.0 pts.(0.2)pts.— pts.13.8 %
Diluted Earnings Per Share: Continuing Operations$1.86 $0.37 $0.00 $(0.03)$— $2.20 


Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
Continuing Operations
GAAP
Acquisition-
Related
Adjustments (1)
Retirement-
Related
Adjustments (2)
Tax
Reform
Impacts
Kyndryl-
Related
Impacts (3)
Operating
(Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit$7,430 $165 $— $— $— $7,595 
Gross Profit Margin52.7 %1.2pts.pts.pts.pts.53.8 %
S,G&A$4,391 $(253)$— $— $$4,138 
Other (Income) & Expense5,755 (1)(6,062)— 14 (293)
Total Expense & Other (Income)11,931 (253)(6,062)— 14 5,630 
Pre-tax Income/(Loss) from Continuing Operations(4,501)418 6,062 — (14)1,965 
Pre-tax Income/(Loss) Margin from Continuing Operations(31.9)%3.0 pts.43.0 pts.— pts.(0.1)pts.13.9 %
Provision for/(Benefit from) Income Taxes (4)
$(1,287)$103 $1,495 $— $— $312 
Effective Tax Rate28.6 %(0.8)pts.(12.1)pts.— pts.0.2 pts.15.9 %
Income/(Loss) from Continuing Operations$(3,214)$315 $4,566 $— $(14)$1,653 
Income/(Loss) Margin from Continuing Operations(22.8)%2.2 pts.32.4 pts.— pts.(0.1)pts.11.7 %
Diluted Earnings/(Loss) Per Share: Continuing Operations (5)
$(3.55)$0.35 $5.05 $— $(0.02)$1.81 
(1)Includes amortization of purchased intangible assets, in process R&D, transaction costs, applicable restructuring and related expenses, tax charges related to acquisition integration and pre-closing charges, such as financing costs.
(2)Includes amortization of prior service costs, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortized actuarial gains/losses, the impacts of any plan curtailments/settlements and pension insolvency costs and other costs. 2022 also includes a one-time, non-cash, pre-tax pension settlement charge of $5.9 billion ($4.4 billion net of tax).
(3)Primarily relates to fair value changes in shares of Kyndryl common stock that were retained by IBM and the related cash-settled swap.
(4)Tax impact on operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax income from continuing operations is calculated under the same accounting principles applied to the As Reported pre-tax income under ASC 740, which employs an annual effective tax rate method to the results.
(5)Due to the GAAP net loss for the three months ended September 30, 2022, dilutive potential shares were excluded from the GAAP loss per share as the effect would have been antidilutive. The difference in share count resulted in an additional ($0.02) reconciling item.



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
U.S. GAAP TO OPERATING (Non-GAAP) RESULTS RECONCILIATION
(Unaudited; Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
Continuing Operations
GAAP
Acquisition-
Related
Adjustments (1)
Retirement-
Related
Adjustments (2)
Tax
Reform
Impacts
Kyndryl-
Related
Impacts (3)
Operating
(Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit$24,033 $460 $— $— $— $24,492 
Gross Profit Margin54.0%1.0pts.pts.pts.pts.55.1%
S,G&A$14,212 $(768)$— $— $— $13,444 
Other (Income) & Expense(721)(2)16 — — (707)
Total Expense & Other (Income)19,102 (770)16 — — 18,348 
Pre-tax Income from Continuing Operations4,931 1,229 (16)— — 6,144 
Pre-tax Income Margin from Continuing Operations11.1 %2.8 pts.0.0 pts.— pts.— pts.13.8 %
Provision for/(Benefit from) Income Taxes (4)
$702 $277 $(27)$(91)$— $861 
Effective Tax Rate14.2 %1.7 pts.(0.4)pts.(1.5)pts.— pts.14.0 %
Income from Continuing Operations$4,229 $953 $11 $91 $— $5,283 
Income Margin from Continuing Operations9.5 %2.1 pts.0.0 pts.0.2 pts.— pts.11.9 %
Diluted Earnings Per Share: Continuing Operations$4.59 $1.04 $0.01 $0.10 $— $5.74 


Nine Months Ended September 30, 2022
Continuing Operations
GAAP
Acquisition-
Related
Adjustments (1)
Retirement-
Related
Adjustments (2)
Tax
Reform
Impacts
Kyndryl-
Related
Impacts (3)
Operating
(Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit$23,055 $526 $— $— $— $23,582 
Gross Profit Margin52.6%1.2pts.pts.pts.pts.53.8%
S,G&A$13,843 $(818)$— $— $$13,025 
Other (Income) & Expense5,921 (2)(6,455)— (353)(889)
Total Expense & Other (Income)25,212 (820)(6,455)— (353)17,584 
Pre-tax Income/(Loss) from Continuing Operations(2,156)1,346 6,455 — 353 5,998 
Pre-tax Income/(Loss) Margin from Continuing Operations(4.9)%3.1 pts.14.7 pts.— pts.0.8 pts.13.7 %
Provision for/(Benefit from) Income Taxes (4)
$(1,070)$327 $1,599 $112 $— $969 
Effective Tax Rate49.6 %(5.7)pts.(26.7)pts.1.9 pts.(2.9)pts.16.1 %
Income/(Loss) from Continuing Operations$(1,087)$1,019 $4,856 $(112)$353 $5,029 
Income/(Loss) Margin from Continuing Operations(2.5)%2.3 pts.11.1 pts.(0.3)pts.0.8 pts.11.5 %
Diluted Earnings/(Loss) Per Share: Continuing Operations (5)
$(1.21)$1.13 $5.39 $(0.12)$0.39 $5.52 
(1)Includes amortization of purchased intangible assets, in process R&D, transaction costs, applicable restructuring and related expenses, tax charges related to acquisition integration and pre-closing charges, such as financing costs.
(2)Includes amortization of prior service costs, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortized actuarial gains/losses, the impacts of any plan curtailments/settlements and pension insolvency costs and other costs. 2022 also includes a one-time, non-cash, pre-tax pension settlement charge of $5.9 billion ($4.4 billion net of tax).
(3)Primarily relates to fair value changes in shares of Kyndryl common stock that were retained by IBM and the related cash-settled swap.
(4)Tax impact on operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax income from continuing operations is calculated under the same accounting principles applied to the As Reported pre-tax income under ASC 740, which employs an annual effective tax rate method to the results.
(5)Due to GAAP net loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2022, dilutive potential shares were excluded from the GAAP loss per share calculation as the effect would have been antidilutive. The difference in share count resulted in an additional ($0.06) reconciling item.


Exhibit 99.2

Non-GAAP Financial Information

Operating (non-GAAP) Earnings Per Share and Related Income Statement Items

In an effort to provide better transparency into the operational results of the business, supplementally, the company separates business results into operating and non-operating categories. Operating earnings from continuing operations is a non-GAAP measure that excludes the effects of certain acquisition-related charges, intangible asset amortization, expense resulting from basis differences on equity method investments, retirement-related costs, certain impacts from the Kyndryl separation and their related tax impacts. Due to the unique, non-recurring nature of the enactment of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (U.S. tax reform), the company characterizes the one-time provisional charge recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017 and adjustments to that charge as non-operating. Adjustments primarily include true-ups, accounting elections and any changes to regulations, laws, audit adjustments that affect the recorded one-time charge. Management characterizes direct and incremental charges incurred related to the Kyndryl separation as non-operating given their unique and non-recurring nature. In 2022, these charges primarily related to any net gains or losses on the Kyndryl common stock and the related cash-settled swap with a third-party financial institution, which were recorded in other (income) and expense in the Consolidated Income Statement. As of November 2, 2022, the company no longer held an ownership interest in Kyndryl. For acquisitions, operating (non-GAAP) earnings exclude the amortization of purchased intangible assets and acquisition-related charges such as in-process research and development, transaction costs, applicable retention, restructuring and related expenses, tax charges related to acquisition integration and pre-closing charges, such as financing costs. These charges are excluded as they may be inconsistent in amount and timing from period to period and are significantly impacted by the size, type and frequency of the company’s acquisitions. All other spending for acquired companies is included in both earnings from continuing operations and in operating (non-GAAP) earnings. For retirement-related costs, the company characterizes certain items as operating and others as non-operating, consistent with GAAP. The company includes defined benefit plan and nonpension postretirement benefit plan service costs, multi-employer plan costs and the cost of defined contribution plans in operating earnings. Non-operating retirement-related costs include defined benefit plan and nonpension postretirement benefit plan amortization of prior service costs, interest cost, expected return on plan assets, amortized actuarial gains/losses, the impacts of any plan curtailments/settlements including a one-time, non-cash, pre-tax settlement charge of $5.9 billion ($4.4 billion net of tax) in the third quarter of 2022 and pension insolvency costs and other costs. Non-operating retirement-related costs are primarily related to changes in pension plan assets and liabilities which are tied to financial market performance, and the company considers these costs to be outside of the operational performance of the business.
 
Overall, the company believes that supplementally providing investors with a view of operating earnings as described above provides increased transparency and clarity into both the operational results of the business and the performance of the company’s pension plans; improves visibility to management decisions and their impacts on operational performance; enables better comparison to peer companies; and allows the company to provide a long-term strategic view of the business going forward. In addition, these non-GAAP measures provide a perspective consistent with areas of interest the company routinely receives from investors and analysts. The company’s reportable segment financial results reflect pre-tax operating earnings from continuing operations, consistent with the company’s management and measurement system.

Free Cash Flow / Net Cash from Operating Activities Excluding IBM Financing Receivables

The company uses free cash flow as a measure to evaluate its operating results, plan shareholder return levels, strategic investments and assess its ability and need to incur and service debt. The entire free cash flow amount is not necessarily available for discretionary expenditures. The company defines free cash flow as net cash from operating activities less the change in Financing receivables and net capital expenditures, including the investment in software. A key objective of the Financing business is to generate strong returns on equity, and our Financing receivables are the basis for that growth. Accordingly, management considers Financing receivables as a profit-generating investment, not as working capital that should be minimized for efficiency. Therefore, management presents both free cash flow and net cash from operating activities that exclude the effect of Financing receivables. Free cash flow guidance is derived using an estimate of profit, working capital and operational cash flows. Since the company views Financing receivables as a profit-generating investment which it seeks to maximize, it is not considered when formulating guidance for free cash flow. As a result, the company does not estimate a GAAP net cash from operations expectation metric.

Constant Currency

When the company refers to growth rates at constant currency or adjusts such growth rates for currency, it is done so that certain financial results can be viewed without the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, thereby facilitating period-to-period comparisons of its business performance. Financial results adjusted for



currency are calculated by translating current period activity in local currency using the comparable prior year period’s currency conversion rate. This approach is used for countries where the functional currency is the local currency. Generally, when the dollar either strengthens or weakens against other currencies, the growth at constant currency rates or adjusting for currency will be higher or lower than growth reported at actual exchange rates.

v3.23.3
Document and Entity Information
Oct. 25, 2023
Document Information [Line Items]  
Document Type 8-K
Document Period End Date Oct. 25, 2023
Entity File Number 1-2360
Entity Registrant Name INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
Entity Incorporation, State or Country Code NY
Entity Tax Identification Number 13-0871985
Entity Address, Address Line One One New Orchard Road
Entity Address, City or Town Armonk
Entity Address, State or Province NY
Entity Address, Postal Zip Code 10504
City Area Code 914
Local Phone Number 499-1900
Written Communications false
Soliciting Material false
Pre-commencement Tender Offer false
Pre-commencement Issuer Tender Offer false
Entity Emerging Growth Company false
Entity Central Index Key 0000051143
Amendment Flag false
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | Common Stock  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security Capital stock, par value $.20 per share
Trading Symbol IBM
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.125% Notes due 2024  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.125% Notes due 2024
Trading Symbol IBM 24A
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 2.875% Notes due 2025  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 2.875% Notes due 2025
Trading Symbol IBM 25A
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.950% Notes due 2025  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.950% Notes due 2025
Trading Symbol IBM 25B
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.875% Notes due 2025  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.875% Notes due 2025
Trading Symbol IBM 25C
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.300% Notes due 2026  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.300% Notes due 2026
Trading Symbol IBM 26B
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.250% Notes due 2027  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.250% Notes due 2027
Trading Symbol IBM 27B
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 3.375% Notes due 2027  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 3.375% Notes due 2027
Trading Symbol IBM 27F
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.300% Notes due 2028  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.300% Notes due 2028
Trading Symbol IBM 28B
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.750% Notes due 2028  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.750% Notes due 2028
Trading Symbol IBM 28A
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.500% Notes due 2029  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.500% Notes due 2029
Trading Symbol IBM 29
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.875% Notes due 2030  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.875% Notes due 2030
Trading Symbol IBM 30A
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.750% Notes due 2031  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.750% Notes due 2031
Trading Symbol IBM 31
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 3.625% Notes due 2031  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 3.625% Notes due 2031
Trading Symbol IBM 31B
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 0.650% Notes due 2032  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 0.650% Notes due 2032
Trading Symbol IBM 32A
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.250% Notes due 2034  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.250% Notes due 2034
Trading Symbol IBM 34
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 3.750% Notes due 2035  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 3.750% Notes due 2035
Trading Symbol IBM 35
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 4.875% Notes due 2038  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 4.875% Notes due 2038
Trading Symbol IBM 38
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 1.200% Notes due 2040  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 1.200% Notes due 2040
Trading Symbol IBM 40
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 4.000% Notes due 2043  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 4.000% Notes due 2043
Trading Symbol IBM 43
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 7.00% Debentures due 2025  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 7.00% Debentures due 2025
Trading Symbol IBM 25
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 6.22% Debentures due 2027  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 6.22% Debentures due 2027
Trading Symbol IBM 27
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 6.50% Debentures due 2028  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 6.50% Debentures due 2028
Trading Symbol IBM 28
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 5.875% Debentures due 2032  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 5.875% Debentures due 2032
Trading Symbol IBM 32D
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 7.00% Debentures due 2045  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 7.00% Debentures due 2045
Trading Symbol IBM 45
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE, INC. | 7.125% Debentures due 2096  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security 7.125% Debentures due 2096
Trading Symbol IBM 96
Security Exchange Name NYSE
NYSE CHICAGO, INC. | Common Stock  
Document Information [Line Items]  
Title of 12(b) Security Capital stock, par value $.20 per share
Trading Symbol IBM
Security Exchange Name CHX

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